my brother gave me my first camera, a Canon A-1 for all of those wondering,
I`ve fallen in love with film photography.
At first, I
shot exclusively on SLR’s, such as the aforementioned Canon A-1. I didn’t
really feel the need to try other cameras, let alone carry a second one around
As I went
to Shanghai for an exchange semester, I quickly notice everyday scenes that
grabbed my attention, but I rarely had my trusty SLR with me. I suddenly needed
a small, pocketable and fast shooting camera to carry with me everywhere.
reading everything I could about compact cameras I found an Olympus XA3 in
pretty good shape. I originally set out to find an XA, but since I don’t speak
mandarin and I wanted to get a camera as fast as possible I settled for what I
XA3 is a tiny black brick. The only pops of color come from the white Olympus
logo and the orange shutter button. It
doesn’t get more discrete than this. The shutter is electronically controlled
and very quiet. Add a super shallow shutter button and you get a camera feels
faster than it really is. Even the film advance wheel helps it pass unnoticed.
I took countless street shots, nobody even noticed and when they did, they
assumed that I was using a toy camera.
After I got
my first film back, I was blown away by the sharpness of the lens. Granted a
35mm focal length with a max aperture of 3.5 doesn’t sound sexy, but this lens
is very sharp and renders images in a lovely way.
It took me
a while to get used to the zone focusing system, but after trying different
speed film, I settled on 400 and 800 ISO film for maximum depth of field and high
shutter speeds, which ensured I could pull the camera out my pocket and take
the shot as fast as possible without having to worry about blurry images.
I love this
little camera. It the perfect take everywhere camera. Sure, it’s not the most
technical and doesn’t have the best optics, but it’s perfect for those everyday
moments worth capturing.
fourth iteration of the XA line, this little camera upped the ante to was
already a very capable and discrete camera. Unlike the original XA which had a
proper rangefinder, aperture priority shooting mode, a 35mm lens with a max
aperture of 2.8 and was built mostly out of metal, the XA3 was redesigned with
a more user-friendly experience in mind. Its body is mostly plastic, and the
shooting mode is purely automatic, just set the focus distance to one of the
three predefined distances and press the shutter. It’s basically an XA2 with an extended ISO
range and DX coding.
Film type: 135 (35mm)
Lens: D.Zuiko 35mm 1:3.5-22 (4 elements in 3 groups)
The Olympus XA3 is a tiny black brick. The only pops of color come from the white Olympus logo and the orange shutter button. It doesn’t get more discrete than this. Its film advance is handled by a thumbwheel winder, which gives it a disposable camera feel, but at the same time makes it that much more discrete. The lens and ISO settings are placed behind a sliding lens cover. The ISO range is set in full-stop increments from ISO 25 all the way to 1600 and the camera also has DX coding. If the film used has a DX code, the ISO will automatically default to it and ignore the setting on the front. One way to get around that is to cover the pins in the film compartment with electrical tape. Not the most sophisticated hack, but it’s quick and easy. One feature the XA3 has that the XA2 doesn’t is the exposure compensation lever. Much like the XA, the XA3 has one more setting in the battery check lever that overexposes the shot by 1.5 stops, giving you an easy workaround for backlight scenes.
If you’re into street shooting, I highly recommend getting one. It’s the most discrete camera I know and the layout of the controls and features lets you shoot faster than with most cameras.
Thanks to its super sneaky shutter, compact size, and clam-shell design, you can take the camera out of a coat pocket, compose and take the shot and put it away without drawing attention. Thanks to its program shooting mode and lean and mean shooting philosophy, it lets you get in the moment and really concentrate on the details. I would even go as far as calling it a Zen camera, one that gets out of the way and lets you capture that decisive moment.
If candid street shots are your thing then go and buy one ASAP, plus their still reasonably cheap. I would recommend this camera for anyone looking for a carry anywhere and take candid shots without all the fuss and bulk of a manual or aperture priority camera. Or even as a second camera to load another film stock and carry it as a backup. It weighs next to nothing and complements a proper manual camera nicely.
Your ultimate guide to developing your own 35mm or 120 film photos at home. No darkroom or photo lab needed.
Film is a somewhat obscure medium to take pictures with, at least by today’s standards. Much of the tradition and know-how of analog photography has lost its mainstream appeal, but thanks to the wonder of the internet and a passionate film community, not all is lost. I’ve been shooting film for 12 years now, and I have to say that the experience couldn’t be more different than digital photography. Granted, the learning curve is steeper and the cost of buying and developing film might deter new users, but the feeling you get from framing an image and being surprised by the result a couple of days/weeks later is something special. If you’re looking to take the experience to another level, then developing your own film at home is the next logical step.
This step by step guide will focus only on Black and White development since it’s the most forgiving and simple. Other types of development, such as C-41 (color negative) and E-6 (color reversal or slide film) require more equipment and need a very specific working temperature for the results to resemble those of photography lab. B&W development is also cheaper, and the chemicals tend to have a much longer shelve life.
The equipment you’ll need for Development
B&W developer, stop bath and fixer.
changing bag (think of it as lightproof bag to spool your film into the film
developing tank and film reel.
thermometer (optional, but highly recommended).
film leader retriever.
for measuring the volume of chemistry correctly.
for storing your chemistry.
sink, bath or anywhere with access to water supply.
Choosing your chemicals
When it comes to choosing your B&W chemicals, the range of product and the sheer amount of information can be intimidating. Don’t worry, I’ll explain the differences as simply as possible.
First things first, the Developer. There are both liquid and powder developers available, the difference being powder can be stored for longer and liquid is easier to mix in smaller batches.
The more important difference is “solvent” (fine grain) and “non-solvent” (high acutance) developers. Deciding between these two types of developers is a matter of taste.
In a nutshell, solvent developers provide fine grain and are more forgiving when comes to exposure, meaning your negatives can be slightly over- or underexposed and the result will still look pleasing. ID-11, D76, Perceptol, Microphen, and XTOL are examples of solvent developers.
Non-solvent developers give sharper results at the cost of a more pronounced grain structure. Rodinal, HC-110, FX-1, and PMK are some examples of solvent developers
Personally, I use Rodinal, since it can be diluted at different strengths and works with virtually every film out there. I´ve used other developers, but they tend to be less flexible than Rodinal when it comes to trying different brands of film and pushing and pulling them.
The second chemical is the stop bath which, as its name implies, stops the development process, giving you more control over development time. Using a stop bath is not necessary, but I highly recommend it. When it comes to which one to buy, I just recommend Acetic Acid which is just good old white vinegar. If you just hate the smell of vinegar, citric acid is also an option.
The third and last chemical needed is the fixer, which fixes the image and makes the negative lightproof. The fixers you can buy differ mainly on how fast they are and how strong they smell. Any which one you pick will be fine. I haven´t had any problems with any of the brands I’ve used.
The last chemical I recommend using is a wetting agent. Depending on where you live, water can have chloride, limestone, chalk, and can leave a spot on your negatives. I use Photo-flow to avoid these imperfections.
Mixing the Chemicals
Before you can develop your priceless pictures, you first need to mix your chemicals. Depending on what specific brands and type of developer you bought, follow the instructions to get a working solution. Some liquid developers are one-shot solutions, meaning they’re meant to be used once and then discarded. So, do yourself a favor and read the instructions carefully. Measurements for chemistry required for different film types are usually located on the bottom of the developing tank.
Loading the film for development
Once all working solutions are mixed and measured, you’ll need to load the film to the reels and place them in the tank.
First, use the film leader retriever and cut the end of the film as shown. These cuts help the film slide smoothly into the reel. Spool the film into the reel, cut the end of the film to separate the empty film canister and place the reel in the tank. These steps all take place within the changing bag. Take your time and make sure the film is properly loaded.
Develop your film
Make sure the chemicals are roughly at the same temperature and compensate for the development times by measuring the temperature of the developer. I recommend using either the massive Development chart app or their website, where most film development information is accessible and easy to use. The App also doubles as a timer, so it saves you time and streamlines the process.
First, pour the developer into the tank and agitate. I recommend agitating constantly for the first minute and then 10 seconds every minute. After agitating lift the tank and tap it down firmly onto a hard surface. This ensures there are no bubbles on the negative surface, giving more consistent results. Pour the developer out and either dispose of it or put it in another container for storage.
Pour the stop bath in and agitate for one minute, then pour it out.
Finally, pour the fixer in. As with the developer, agitate constantly for the first minute, then 10 seconds every minute and tap after each agitation cycle.
By now your film is light-proof, but still has trace chemicals on it so give it a good rinse. Some manuals call for 10 min under running water, but I do it a little differently. I fill the tank with water an agitate constantly for at least a minute and dump the water out, then I repeat the cycle for a total of three.
As the last step, I dunk the film in a wetting agent solution. Personally, I use Kodak photo-flow, it cheap and a bottle lasts for ages. After a 30 sec immersion, the films are ready for hanging and drying.
After drying your negatives are ready for
storage, scanning or darkroom work. Hope you have fun developing and don´t
forget that film photography is supposed to be fun. Don´t sweat the details,
just enjoy the process!